Volume 39, No 2, 2017, Pages 198–206

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Case Study: the Influence of Oil-based Friction Modifier Quantity on Tram Braking Distance and Noise


R. Galas*, M. Omasta, M. Klapka, S. Kaewunruen, I. Krupka, M. Hartl

DOI: 10.24874/ti.2017.39.02.06


In the present study, the twin disc machine and the light rail system was employed in order to investigate the ability of oil-based friction modifier (FM) to optimize adhesion and to reduce noise. The risks associated with poor adhesion conditions after the application of FM were evaluated. Both laboratory and field experiments showed that if the contact is overdosed by FM, the poor adhesion, which results in the extension of braking distance, can occur. In contrast, the smaller quantities do not cause critical adhesion but the effect of FM on the noise reduction is negligible. This study indicates that it can be quite difficult to achieve a reasonable noise reduction without a significant impact on braking distance of tram when the oil-based FM is applied. The field experiments also showed that the carry distance of FM is rather limited, approximately 100 m.


Adhesion, Braking distance, Friction modifier, Noise, Wheel-rail contact

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